Howard J. Wall directs the Hammond Institute for Free Enterprise and the Center for Economics and the Environment at Lindenwood University. Prior to joining Lindenwood in 2011, he was a vice president and regional economics adviser at the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. While at the St. Louis Fed, he established and directed the Center for Regional Economics-8th District (CRE8), which provided economic analyses of issues affecting state and local economies. In addition, Dr. Wall spent 10 years as an academic in the economics departments at West Virginia University and Birkbeck College, University of London; had two stints as a visiting scholar at the Bank of Japan; and was a senior Fulbright scholar at the Instituto de Economa de Montevideo, Uruguay. He has published more than 50 papers in scholarly journals such as the Review of Economics and Statistics, International Economic Review, Economic Journal, Journal of Urban Economics, Regional Science and Urban Economics, Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, and the Journal of Regional Science.